This study of communities and the use of agricultural chemicals was conducted by gathering information through conversations with farmers engaged in production at the community level, with a particular focus on farmers who use agro-chemicals. This study presents the perspective of farmers using chemicals in community-level production systems. Three types of production systems of three characteristics were studied: 1) the highland production system of the Hmong community of Khun Klong Village, Chomthong District, Chiang Mai Province, within Doi Inthanon National Park, 2) the intensive lowland commercial agricultural system of Ban Pong, Ban Kaad Sub-district, Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai Province, and 3) the fruit orchard production system of Huay Meng Village, Chiang Khong District, Chiang Rai Province.The study resulted in the following findings:The use of agricultural chemicals at the community level has reached a point of crisis. Chemicals are used under conditions of a total lack of control and oversight. In addition, because villagers primarily emphasize commercial production, the types of chemicals used by villagers are increasingly diverse and are being used in ever-greater quantities. This is due to market mechanisms that demand the use of designated chemicals from the first stages of production onwards.Two main factors have given rise to these changes in production, namely 1) entry into intensive commercial production systems directed by product standardization. This leads to changes in villagers’ fundamental perceptions and life styles, including their production systems. 2) Political policies such as opium eradication on Doi Inthanon and the establishment of conservation forests that result in limitations on available land and necessitate the use of chemicals.In examining the effects of agricultural chemical use and the local response to the resulting changes, it was found that villagers are understand the impacts of chemical use from direct experience, and are well aware of the dangers that chemicals pose. The farmers surveyed have responded to these changes in a similar pattern, however, continuing to use chemicals to attain designated production “standards.” Although alternatives to the use of chemicals exist in each area, these alternatives remain in their infancy and have lacked serious consideration. Government support for non-chemical alternatives has lacked continuity. Because this study focuses on the perspectives of farmers engaged in the use of chemicals at the village level, the following recommendations target the local level, where chemical use occurs without real control. A study of village-level chemical use should be used to create a Community Agro-Chemical Database covering all of Thailand. The database would be available to communities in the case of chemical-related illness or environmental impacts. The study should include the participation of farmers throughout, from the early planning stages to the testing of data collected from communities. Villagers should be given the support necessary to control and oversee the use of chemicals through a participatory forum, in consideration of the fact that each community has a different culture and production system.In creating production alternatives, planning should thoroughly cover both theory and practice in a tangible sense, rather than merely providing recommendations or trainings. A wide variety of choices should be available for the reduction and disuse of agro-chemicals, which is the desire of the majority of the farmers.