Social and health problems of the construction workers in Thailand, 1995The multicenter survey of "Social and health problems of the construction workers in Thailand, 1995" aimed to describe working and health status of the labors. Multistage and purposive sampling was applied to get 20 construction sites each from Bangkok, Chang Mai and Phitsanulok in the North, Khon Kean and Nong Khai from the Northeast Hatyai and Phuket in the South and Chon Buri province from eastern sea board area. 714 construction site were compatible with the selection criteria, and 184 sites were selected for this study. 243 foremen and 3,623 workers were interviewed. Main collected data were general appearance of the working sites, working status, life style, safety procedures and practices, deaths and hospitalization, health seeking behavior of the workers and sanitation of the shelters. Major findings are in the followings: Most construction workers were in low socio-economic class as well as working in the risk area. More male workers died from working related accidents, it might be from a lack of enough measures to protect and prevent accident among the workers. There were also not enough safety devices and, moreover, few workers used the safety devices habitually. The government sectors seldomly visited the sites and usually ignored the well being of the workers. Most workers were temporary and daily employed, without written contract. These were very few insurance for the workers, especially medical insurance. So the workers usually paid for their hospitalization and other medical reatment.Only 1/3 of the workers knew and concerned about their right, especially female workers. Most employers provides the shelters for the workers in the construction sites. The sanitation were poor. There were lots of littering and wastes water around the shelters. The shelters usually had not enough light, no windows and few latrines. Pipe water was the main source of drinking and other purposes. Most workers in Bangkok and Chon Buri province were migrated from the northeast and the north, while other provinces were local residences. There was twice of females, most in aged 20-35 years and got only primary school education.Not only the environment and working conditions had threatened the workers, but also the risk behaviors, such as, regular smoking which was high among males. In addition, they usually consumed alcohol, took analgesic drug, and some consumed amphetamine. Moreover, there were lots of social problems inshelter area, such as alcohol addiction, violence among workers or in the family, and gambling. Main activities of the workers after working hours were talking with their friends of family and watching television. Few workers admitted to the physical and mental exercises. Even though, the living condition was quite poor, most workers still satisfied on their work. However, they would not encourage their children and sibling to get this job. Main recommendations from the study are: increasing the governmental role to control the safety, sanitation of the construction sites, increasing safety prodesures for the workers, regular and intensive training for the workers and foremen focusing on knowledge, safety awareness and practices, law enforcement and regular visit by the government sectors, especially the local governors, and providing special health care for the workers and their family, and schooling services for their kids.