This is a literature review of chemical and organic agriculture form secondary data: academic materials, articles and reports. These consisted of government policies related to the agricultural sector; ecological and environmental situation, pesticide and chemical usage in agriculture and agriculturists’ health. The study refers back to before the year 1960, From the above literature review, it revealed that incidents occurred from government policies which were tremendously related to environmental changes and life-style of the N.E. people. The death rate of infants and pregnant women decreased to a satisfactory level. Almost all diseases that occurred from improving immunity were eliminated after public health had been in service, but these diseases were replaced with accidents, cancer, gastroenteritis diseases, skin diseases, muscle system, stress, allergies, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, AIDS, and lack of some nutritious substance. These diseases are conducting one’s life which was “earn a living’ became ‘make money’. Money was of main importance, forests were destroyed to make a living and to do the farm to increase income to meet the end needs. From a report, production increased by expanding land was don more than increasing production effectiveness. Lack of agricultural labour caused high wages; also not that much technology was used. So Small Scale agriculture was not worth it. Contracted farming was augmented gradually; and in this production system the usage of chemicals was rather high. Chemicals and non-organic fertilizer is one of the factors that the government must give directions and see the importance of production increase and prevent damages from pests. This is because agriculturists do not have far vision, lack potentiality assessment, do not realize the effect toward food sources, habitations environment, and health in the long term. However, this study is a literature review. All data were from each period but there was no concrete evidence that affected health. There were likely to be reports about diseases symptoms such as poison, loss of life from poisons or toxins, etc. in various places, times and conditions. Suggestions were as follows: Data should be analysed before determining national policy including effects that might happen in the future by focussing on the public health both mentally and physically as a main issue, and collective happiness in the society. And effects toward health, which may be created as examples of effecting health so they, can be solved promptly.