Objective: To study diabetes mellitus epidemiology in Phanomphrai district and
to assess diabetes risk factors in the Phanomphrai sub-district (tambon).
Methodology: Descriptively reviewed the Phanomphrai population and diabetes
registration and services for epidemiologic data in fiscal year 2006, and carried out a
community survey to assess diabetes risk factors through interviews using questionnaires
and specimen collection among those aged 20 years and older in Phanomphrai tambon in
the period July - September 2005.
Results: The Phanomphrai population was 100,870, with 38,069 (37.7%) aged 40 or
older; 2,648 diabetic patients were registered, with a prevalence rate of 2.6 percent. There
were 10 (0.4%) with type 1 diabetes, 2,630 (99.3%) with type 2 diabetes, and 8 (0.3%) with
gestational diabetes. New cases of type 2 diabetes totaled 299, 300 and 192 cases during
2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively, making the incidence rate 0.29 percent, 0.30 percent and
0.20 percent, respectively. After complication screening, there were 8.4 percent renal, 2.0
percent neurological, 1.7 percent arterial and 1.2 percent ophthalmologic complications
with 0.5 percent experiencing amputation and 0.9 percent multiple complications. After
the community survey of a total of 1,540 subjects, 474 (30.8%) were classified as cases of
disease, 605 (39.3%) as being at risk and 461 (29.9%) as normal. Risks by body mass index
(BMI ≥25) were 46.9 percent, 31.8 percent and 22.1 percent in the disease, risk and normal
groups, respectively. Risks by abdominal circumference were 41.3 percent, 28.3 percent
and 17.8 percent in the disease, risk and normal groups, respectively. High blood pressure was found in 84.6 percent and 97.4 percent in the disease and risk groups, respectively. Abnormal fasting blood glucose levels were 44.7 percent and 9.0 percent in the
disease and risk groups respectively. Abnormal triglyceride levels (≥250 mg%) were found
in 27.6 percent, 14.2 percent and 12.0 percent of the disease, risk and normal groups,
respectively. High density lipoprotein levels (≤40 mg/dl) were 47.2 percent, 49.2 percent
and 45.5 percent in the disease, risk and normal groups, respectively.
Conclusions: Epidemiologic study helps increase understanding of the diabetes
situation and disease burden, and indicates that diabetes has imposed huge public health
and economic burdens. Measures of high priority must be emphasized in relation to the
quality of care, information systems and the interventions made to prevent or delay diabetes in high-risk groups, and to study the risk factors for diabetes and metabolic syndromes for the development of efficacious preventive measures.