The research and development study aimed to develop a model of lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in high risk group.
Methods: The study was divided into two phases, phase one developed a lifestyle program and phase two evaluated the effectiveness of the model using quasi-experimental study. According to phase two, the participants were selected from high risk group of DM in the local community, Kudjub district, Udonthani province, north-eastern part of Thailand. The lifestyle program was applied from the diabetes prevention program (DPP). Researcher team and public health nurses in District Health Promoting Hospitals (DHPH) performed seven meetings to deliver education and empowerment consisted of healthy diet, physical activity, stress management and social behaviors. The participants in intervention group were encouraged to match as a “buddy” for coaching each other throughout 16 weeks of the program. The outcomes were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), health behaviors, and satisfaction of the program.
Results: Totally, 30 persons in intervention and 30 in control group participated. Most of them were women (73.3%), and the mean age was 51.2 years. The mean of BMI was 28.4 kg/m2, FBS was 95.3 mg/dl, and waist WC was 93.8 centimeters. After 16 weeks, adjusted mean difference (MD) of FBS (90.1 mg/dl in intervention vs 95.3 mg/dl in control group) and BMI (25.7 vs 29.1 kg/m2) were not significant. WC was significantly decreased in intervention group compared to control group (MD –5.9 cm; 95%CI = –9.4 to –2.4; p=0.001) Health behavior score (MD 3.6 score; 95%CI = 0.3 to 6.9; p=0.035) and knowledge (MD 2.0 score; 95% CI=0.6 to 3.4; p=0.006) were significantly increased in intervention compared to control group. Overall, 96.7% of the intervention group was satisfied and very satisfied with the program.
Conclusion: Lifestyle intervention program demonstrated significant improvement in WC, health behaviors and knowledge. The program could lead to prevent type 2 DM in the local community.