Community pharmacy is a health service that provides drug distribution and primary health services in the community. Proper distribution of community pharmacies in each area will allow people to access pharmacy services resulting in safe drug use. This study aimed to examine the distribution of community pharmacies in relation to health needs by health region of Thailand. Secondary data obtained from relevant government agencies: the number of population, the number of patients with ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC), gross provincial product (GPP) per capita, modern pharmacy (type I), accredited pharmacy and type II pharmacy along with other public and private health establishments, were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that in 2016, there were 16,053 community pharmacies in Thailand. Health region 13 (Bangkok) had the most community pharmacies (4,774 stores), representing 29.74 percent of the country total. In provincial area, Health region 4 had the highest number of community pharmacies (1,780), representing 11.09 percent and Health region 3 with the least community pharmacies (333) representing 2.07 percent. When considering the distribution of community pharmacies in relation to health needs, Thailand had 2.47 stores per 10,000 population and 2.72 stores per 10,000 cases of patients with ACSC. The number of community pharmacies was positively correlated with gross provincial product (GPP) per capita. In provincial area, majority of community pharmacies located in municipal area. The study showed unequal distribution of community pharmacies in Thailand. These may affect unequal access to medicines and pharmacy services.